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This led to a partial occupation of Lebanon which lasted 9 years, and was followed by a third fullscale invasion, in the 33 Day War.
From to , Iraq was at war with Iran, in a conflict that caused tremendous losses to both sides. Palestinian militants responded to Israeli state aggression with a first intifada in , followed by a second, beginning in and still continuing 8 years later, up to the Israeli assault on Gaza. Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in triggered the United Statesled Desert Storm response of , which was followed by the Second Gulf War, designed finally to overthrow Saddam Hussein, in These are merely the major international conflicts which created death and destruction throughout the area.
As we now turn to the individual countries of the Arab Middle East, we shall find that they were all also plagued by internal conflictscoups, regional strife, and even, in the case of Lebanon, full-scale civil warwhich inevitably shaped and distorted both civil and cultural life, including the film production which concerns us here.
Whereas the English imposed bedouin kings on their mandated territories of Iraq and Trans-Jordan, the French tried to establish democratic republics in the areas they controlled.
Nowhere was the constitution bequeathed on independence more finely tuned and elaborately balanced than in Lebanon, a wholly artificial state carved out of the old Syrian province, in which, at the time, just over half the population was Christian Maronites and Catholics with traditional links to France, as well as Protestants with ties to the United States.
The remainder of the population was diverse: both Sunni and Shia Muslims, Druze, Jews, and a number of tiny groups. The French sought an intricate system of checks and balances: The post of president traditionally went to a Maronite, that of prime minister to a Sunni Muslim, with the speaker of the chamber of deputies being a Shia.
Discussing what she terms the Hollow State, Sandra Mackey argueswith some justificationthat the Lebanon the French had created was little more than a precariously balanced collective of economically and politically linked autonomous societies living in a weak, schizophrenic state. Christiandominated Lebanon adopted a pro-Western stance and tried to stand aside from the basic quarrels between Arabs and Jews in the Middle East it took no part in the wars of and The recipe seemed to work and Lebanon prospered, so that, by the mids, Beirut had morphed into a glitzy, Mediterranean metropolis, a Mecca for the international set, a haven for exiles of the regions political wars, and a brothel of business, where cash transcended law and ethics.
The beginnings in the s were hesitant: Michel Haroun, a recruit from the theatre, made just one feature, Georges Kahi directed his first film in literary Arabic before turning to Lebanese dialect for his subsequent works, while Georges Nasser, having presented his Introduction feature debut at Cannes, shot his second film in French, in the vain hope of attracting an up-market audience at home.
Hady Zaccak observes that these early filmmakers drew their subjects from Lebanese reality, putting the emphasis on the beauty of the landscape, village life, Lebanese dress and popular musical traditions as well.
The development of commercial filmmaking in Lebanon during the s and early s was aided by the disruption caused by the nationalization of film production in Egypt, with the setting up of the General Organisation for Cinema though the Egyptian studios still managed to produce features in the period For their part, Lebanese producers made features in the same period, new cinemas sprang up in Beirut and elsewhere, and audience numbers soared. The major commercial directors, whose careers all extended into the sMohamed Selmane and Rida Myassar, followed in the early s by Samir alGhoussayniall produced a spate of films.
Co-productions with Egypt and Syria were undertaken and this was, in one sense, the golden age of Lebanese cinema.
But, as Zaccak notes, the growth in production was merely in quantity, not in quality. Many of the films were based on Egyptian or Western commercial formulas, with no specific Lebanese identity even the dialogue of many films was in Egyptian dialect , and the key development requiredthe creation of the infrastructure needed for a film industry to rival Egyptcould not be achieved.
There were a number of cultural initiativesthe Beirut Cin Club was founded in , the first International Film Festival to be held in the Arab world took place in , the Arab Film and Television Centre was established thanks to Unesco initiatives in , followed by the The Broken Wings , Lebanon Youssef Maalouf had worked in the Egyptian feature-film industry for 10 years when, in , he arrived in Lebanon to direct the first of the ten films he was to make there, and in Syria, in the course of the next decade.
The Broken Wings is virtually the only readily available film from the era when Beirut set out to rival Cairo as the center of Arab film. The English subtitled version of The Broken Wings does not contain full credits and attributes the script to Khalil Gibran, the celebrated author of The Prophet.
But since the writer died in , it seems inevitable that the script, though based on his autobiography, was in fact adapted by a professional screenwriter. Whatever the case, the film captures the full flavor of Gibrans floridly lyrical style through its static declamatory dialogue, full of aphorisms and lofty sentiments, and through the overlaying of Rachmaninoffs Second Piano Concerto at emotional high points throughout.
Maalouf directs the studio set movie with fluid assurance and has made a thoroughly professional job of reshaping the material into the conventional form of an Egyptian film melodrama, even finding space for a lengthy belly-dancing scene one of the rare moments of oriental music in the film.
The story, with occasional first person voice-over comments by the author, tells of Gibrans first great love, for the beautiful Selma, in the context of turn-ofthe century Christian Lebanon. The lovers, who fall in love at first sight, are separated when her wealthy father is persuaded by the bishop to marry her off to the bishops nephew, who is a gambler, drunkard, and womanizer.
The broken wings of the title are those of women in an unenlightened patriarchal society, against which Gibran rails in vain.
Selma is idealized as a passive victim of oriental despotism whose predicable fate, death in childbirth, forms the films emotional climax. Arab Filmmakers of the Middle East 8 Ziad Doueiri, who was 12 when the Lebanese Civil War broke out in Beirut and lived there for a further 8 years, returned after 15 years in the United States to recreate his childhood years in West Beyrouth.
During his years of absence, he had studied film at UCLA and worked in Hollywood, most notably as camera assistant to Quentin Tarantino.
These experiences find their direct reflection in the film, which follows closely the experiences of the exuberant and rebellious middle-class schoolboy Tarek, his close friend Omar, and a Christian refugee, May, as they live through their adolescent experiences and obsessions at the very moment the war breaks out. The film captures brilliantly the initial uncertainties of the time, for adults and children, as events unfold around them without logic or meaning.
Tareks own personal rebellion at his French-language school, with which the film opens, is soon drowned by the chaos in the streets of what is now marked off by the fighting as West Beirut. Perhaps because he has chosen to tell his film through the eyes of adolescents totally lacking political or religious insights Centre National du Cinma CNC , attached to the Ministry of Information, in The incident which plunged Lebanon into sudden and unexpected civil war in was no more than a trivial fishing dispute, but it brought to the fore a number of key underlying issues.
The major problem was the threat to Maronite supremacy caused by demographic changes which saw the nine hundred thousand Maronites outnumbered in a population of some three and a half million and the arrival of a new wave of Palestinian immigrants after the events of Black September had caused the Palestine Liberation Organisations [PLOs] expulsion from Jordan who organized themselves as a state within a and has included presumably autobiographical elements such as the boys obsession with Super 8 filming , Doueiri adopts an upbeat and positive attitude toward the horrors perpetrated in the city.
Significantly, no one close to Tarek is either killed or wounded, and his parents, though left destitute and confused, are unbroken by events. Doueiri films with an often handheld camera and uses a jagged editing style to create closeness to the characters. He captures the exuberant flow of events and skilfully uses music to blend his enacted story with real documentary and newsreel archive footage.
No side is blamed and no political points are made. Instead, Doueiri seeks out absurd and comic touches, such as the adoption by fighters on all sides of a womans brassiere as the emblem or flag to indicate to each other that they are visiting the neutral space of the brothel, not engaged in hostile acts and therefore not to be shot by snipers.
West Beyrouth was clearly conceived as entertainment which would also offer insights into the unique reality of the Lebanese Civil War years. In this, Doueiri is totally successful. Once violence began, the government had neither the authority nor the military resources to restore order, so that soon the various armed militias were at war, each defending its own territorial areas and what it saw as its own specific interests: The Druze and some Lebanese leftists fought for power in the Lebanese system.
Other Lebanese Muslims fought for radical reform and a Lebanon stripped of its Western identity. The Palestinians fought for their own nationalism.
Some Christians fought for political reform and Arab identity. The Maronites fought for their vision of Christian Lebanon. There is much truth in the traditional Arab joke quot- Introduction Under the Bombs , Lebanon Philippe Aractingi has 20 years of experience in documentary filmmaking from a production base in France and has recently developed an interest in improvisation.
These two concerns were brought together in , in the last days of the Israeli 33 Day invasion of Lebanon and during the ensuing uneasy truce. With two professional actors, Aractingi set out to make a road movie, tracing two peoples journey from Beirut to the South, through the shattered landscape of Lebanon immediately after the Israeli assault. The two protagonists are contrasting figures.
Zeina is a rich Lebanese Shiite expatriate, returning from Dubai to search for her son, Karim, lost with her sister in the bombing of their native village of Kherbet Selm.
Tony is a working-class Christian taxi driver, also from the South, initially concerned primarily with being well paid for risking his life on a trip refused by all his colleagues. The film sensitively traces the growing relationship between the two, powered by Tonys obvious sexual attraction for his passenger.
Under the tension of the journey, they move from initial hostility to emotional close- ed by Ross: God laughed when He created the Sudan and wasnt thinking when He created Arabia; so what were You doing, asked the bemused Lebanese, when You created our beautiful land of cedar trees, blue seas and cool breezes? Ah, God smiled, just wait until you see who Ive given you as neighbours.
As a result, ever more powerful and destructive weapon systems were introduced into the civil conflict, and the savagery of the combatants rose steadily. The Lebanese civil war lasted fifteen years in all, and finally came to an end only when the state had been bankrupted, the economy ruined, and vast swathes of the country, and especially Beirut, had been totally devastated.
Little beyond destruction ness, gradually revealing their personal lives to each other. Eventually, it is Tony who drives the search forward, only for the child eventually found to turn out to be not Karim but his traumatized friend, whose family was slaughtered in the same assault which killed Zeinas sister.
More important than this central dramatic core is the series of glimpses the film offers of the impact of the Israeli onslaught on ordinary Lebanese civilians.
The couples journey takes them through a landscape of horror, where whole communities have been devastated. Apart from the central couple and the hotel receptionist with whom Tony has a brief sexual fling, all the characters are people directly living the disaster. The images of human suffering are particularly harrowing, because these are real victims, filmed at the very moment when they are having to come to terms with the loss of their families.
This human immediacy has a devasting impact on the viewer: as Philippe Aractingi has said, the experience of Under the Bombs was less that of making a film than that of living the film. Perhaps one hundred fifty thousand people had been killed and 15 percent of the population driven into exile.
A war which was anchored in no coherent set of ideas ended, 15 years later, with no resolution of the issues that had ignited it. The Lebanese civil war had, in short, been destructive and futile, ugly and unfinished. It ended only because the Lebanese became numb to each other. But under the pressure of events, a new generation of filmmakers emerged, whom Zaccak terms the filmmakers of the Lebanese intelligentsia, their arrival heralded by Maroun Bagdadis premonitory feature, Beirut Oh Beirut 10 Arab Filmmakers of the Middle East Only Saab, who had studied economics at the Sorbonne, was not a professionally trained filmmaker.
Many of their films were made with foreign finance often from European television sources. But even when living in exile, their commitment to their country and its predicament, matched with a deep concern for the Palestinian cause, is very clear from the documentaries they made during the civil war period. This group is the one which dominates much of what we think of as Lebanese filmmaking. Bountu des prix du pari sportif en ligne Bountou 1X2 20 Juil Ce contenu est protégé.
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